The small blob near China no one notices
The Island of Taiwan was first settled by the Taiwanese Aborigines people. 8000 years later, during the Han Dynasty, people from China started to migrate to Taiwan. Later, both the Dutch and the Spanish would set up temporary colonies on the island for trade purposes. After the Sino-Japanese war, Taiwan would be given over to Japanese rule, only to be returned after 50 years. Finally, after the Chinese Civil War, the overthrown Republic of China fled to Taiwan and resumed their government on the Island.
The People's Republic of China claims Taiwan as one of their providences, although the Republic of China maintains a separate government.